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Home RUANG PATRON OPINI Salah Satu Faktor Penyebab Meningkatnya Kemiskinan di Banten

Salah Satu Faktor Penyebab Meningkatnya Kemiskinan di Banten

Salah Satu Faktor Penyebab Meningkatnya Kemiskinan di Banten

Oleh : Suardi

Kemiskinan merupakan suatu kenyataan sosial yang tidak dapat dielakkan oleh masyarakat. Masalah kemiskinan hingga saat ini masih menjadi isu global, terutama di negara-negara dunia ketiga seperti halnya Indonesia. Selain dirasakan langsung oleh orang miskin itu sendiri, kemiskinan juga berakibat buruk pada kehidupan umat manusia. Karena mata rantai kemiskinan adalah timbulnya pengangguran, kelaparan hingga menimbulkan tindakan kriminalitas. Artinya semakin tinggi angka pengangguran maka potensi kriminalitas seperti pencurian, pemerkosaan, dan pembunuhan ini juga akan semakin tinggi.

Mengutip pernyataan Martin Luther King (1960) “you are strong as the weakestof the people”. Artinya kita tidak akan menjadi bangsa yang besar kalau mayoritas masyarakatnya masih miskin dan lemah. Maka untuk menjadi bangsa yang besar bangsa kita mayoritas masyarakatnya tidak boleh hidup dalam kemiskinan dan lemah. Dalam konteks bangsa Indonesia tentu pernyataan ini menjadi pernyataan positif sekaligus saran yang dapat mengingatkan kita bahwa kita harus bangkit.

Kondisi jumlah masyarakat miskin di Indonesia saat ini semenjak pandemi kembali memperihatinkan. Berdasarkan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) yang dirilis pada 15 Juli 2020 Jumlah kemiskinan yang pada awalnya sempat turun tahun 2019, kini di tahun 2020 hingga tahun 2021 ini kembali meningkat menjadi 9, 78%. Jumlah penduduk miskin pada Maret 2020 sebesar 26, 42 juta orang, meningkat 1,63 juta orang terhadap September 2019, dan meningkat 1,28 juta orang terhadap Maret 2019.

Salah satu provinsi yang yang masih tingginya angka kemiskinan adalah Provinsi Banten, berdasarkan hasil survei sosial ekonomi nasional (SUSENAS) jumlah kemiskinan di Banten akibat masa pandemi ini mengalami peningkatan. Hal ini dikatakan langsung oleh Gubernur Wahidin Halim (dikutip dari kompas 17/02/2021). Jumlah angka kemiskinan pada bulan September 2020 sebanyak 857.640 orang, atau bertambah 81.650 orang selama tujuh bulan.

Angka kemiskinan di Provinsi Banten dari tahun ke tahun jika dikalkulasikan memang masih tinggi. Tercatat jumlah angka kemiskinan di Banten pada tahun 2014 adalah sebagai berikut; jumlah penduduk miskin di Kota 381.18 sedangkan jumlah penduduk miskin di desa adalah 268.01. (Jamaludin, 2019). Pada tahun 2018 jumlah angka kemiskinan sebesar 5,25 % atau sebanyak 668.74 penduduk. Sedangkan tahun 2019 mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,15 % atau sebanyak 641.42 ribu (

Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan kemiskinan di Indonesia tak kunjung usai dan faktor tersebut tidak mesti mululu karena faktor pendidikan, rendahnya derajat kesehatan, ataupun terbatasnya lapangan kerja. Artinya tergantung kita melihatnya dari dimensi apa kita melihatnya ataukah politik, sosial, lingkungan, ekonomi ataupun mungkin aset. Yang pasti kemiskinan itu banyak faktor dan bukan hanya karena berdasarkan pada tingkat konsumsi saja. Lagi pula konsumsi itu juga berkaitan dengan pola hidup atau budaya masyarakat yang selalu ingin isntan.

Kebanyakan faktor kemiskinan hanya dilihat dari aspek pendidikan, ekonomi, sosial dan lingkungan. Sedangkan dari aspek kultural jarang sekali diperhatikan. Terdapat tiga pendekatan dalam memahami kemiskinan yang bisa kita gunakan, yaitu pendekatan kultural, pendekatan situasional, dan pendekatan interaksional (Saebani, 2017). Ketiga pendekatan ini dapat kita gunakan untuk menganalisis kemiskinan yang terjadi pada masyarakat terutama untuk hari ini dan dimasa yang akan datang. Kemiskinan perlu dilihat bukan sesuatu yang baru, artinya kemiskinan bisa saja terjadi kapan saja dan dimana saja atau di daerah mana saja, dan di negara mana saja baik sklanya regional, nasional maupun global.

Apa itu Pendekatan Kultural,?

Tokoh utama yang menggunakan pendekatan kultural terhadap kemiskinan adalah Oscar Lewis dengan konsepnya Cultural Poverty”. Lewis berpendapat bahwa kemiskinan adalah suatu budaya yang terjadi karena penderitaan ekonomi yang berlangsung lama. Berdasarkan hasil penelitiannya terhadap beberapa etnis, Lewis menemukan bahwa kemiskinan adalah salah satu subkultur masyarakat yang mempunyai kesamaan ciri antar etnis satu dengan etnis yang lain.

Berdasarkan pendekatan ini saya melihat bahwa faktor dominan kemiskinan terjadi dari dulu hingga sekarang khususnya disebabkan sebagai gejala kultural. Pandemi covid-19 memang membawa banyak krisis multidimensional salah satunya ekonomi tetapi bagi saya tingkat kemiskinan bukan hanya karena pandemi toh pada dari tahun ke tahun juga angka kemiskinan di Banten tetap tinggi. Dan logikanya tidak mungkin dalam dua tahun berjalan langsung miskin.

Gejala kultural saya contohkan seperti suku Jawa dan Sunda. Suku Sunda dikenal sebagai orang, keras kepala, tidak ulet dan pemalas atau dalam bahasa sundanya “KURANG KADAEK”. Barangkali disini ada keterkaitan jika disebutnya Banten sebagai daerah Jawara, karena sifatnya yang keras kepala dan suka melawan seperti asal usul nama Banten itu sendiri Bantah (Banten asal katanya “Bantah” artinya melawan).

Berbeda dengan orang Jawa, suku Jawa dikenal sebagai orang yang gigih, ulet, pekerja keras, dan berjiwa usaha. Orang Jawa banyak yang sukses karena jiwanya yang pekerja keras dan memiliki pola pikir usaha mandiri daripada bekerja dan ditunjuk oleh orang lain. Namun demikian, baik suku Jawa atau Jawa keduanya memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan. Contohnya orang Jawa di Banten dikenal dengan pelit (koret) karena jiwanya usahanya yang selalu perhitungan.

Selain itu suku Jawa juga dikenal sebagai suku yang patuh terhadap kepala suku/pimpinan, hal inilah yang kemudian dinamakan oleh Pramoedya Anatoerr sebut Jawanisme. Ungkapan Jawanisme digunakan oleh Paramoedya semenjak penjajahan masa kolonial Belanda yaitu “taat dan setia membabi buta pada atasan” kata Pram. Ketaatan dan kesetiaan ini membuat orang mudah bertekuk lutut pada rezim Belanda, Jepang dan sekarang Indonesia. Sedangkan suku Sunda positifnya memiliki budaya kerokan. Kerokan artinya tidak enakan, karena memiliki kedekatan emosional maupun kultural.

Dalam konteks budaya dan hubungannya dengan ekonomi bagi saya terletak pada budayanya. Di era modern kita tau semua masyarakat Indonesia cenderung berpikir instan. Sehingga memunculkan gaya hidup yang praktis. Jadi bagi saya keterkaitan antara konsumsi dengan jumlah kemiskinan tidak begitu berpengaruh sekalipun ada tidak akan begitu signifikan. Logikanya tidak mungkin orang langsung miskin karena membeli kopi ataupun rokok. Membeli rokok ataupun kopi di warung bagi saya suatu keniscayaan di era modern ini, toh kecil kemungkinan juga jika masyarakat harus kembali memproduksi kopi secara tradisional ataupun kembali kepada rokok daun kawung (daun aren), seperti orang tua kita jaman dulu.

Apa itu Kurang Kadaek,?

Kurang Kadaek, adalah dialek bahasa Banten. Dalam bahasa Indonesia Kurang Kadaek dapat kita artikan pemalas atau orang yang bermalas-malasan. Dalam Kamus Bahasa Sunda (KBS) pemalas artinya males, atau kedul. Jadi dapat kita simpulkan bahwa kurang Kadaek artinya pemalas, atau kurang memiliki kemauan/tidak memiliki kemauan. Pada konteks ini, orang Sunda cenderung bermalas-malasan, sedikit kerja dan kurang kemauan. Watak orang Sunda memang demikian, kurang memiliki kemauan dan selalu menjadi pekerja bukan pencipta lapangan pekerjaan.

Meskipun demikian, tidak semua orang Sunda memiliki sifat seperti tadi. Artinya di Banten juga banyak orang yang sukses, gigih, pekerja keras dan memiliki etos kerja yang tinggi. Namun biasanya budaya akan terus melekat dalam diri seseorang, tetapi jangan khawatir karena budaya itu adalah cara berfikir maka bisa kita rubah. Seperti dikatakan oleh Fahrudin Faiz, awalnya dari pikiran, kemudian tindakan, perilaku, kebiasaan, karakter dan menjadi nasib. Nah disinilah letak nasib yang dalam Islam diekenal sebagai nasib yang bisa dirubah melalui usaha.

Kemiskinan yang terjadi hari ini di Banten adalah disebabkan karena kurangnya kemauan atau pola pikir yang tidak maju, sebagai contoh Kabupaten Lebak yang dijuluki sebagai kabupaten tertinggal. Hal ini dikarenakan sifat orang Sunda itu tadi yang dipertegas dengan budaya kerok (tidak enakan) serta memiliki mindset pekerja bukan pencipta lapangan pekerjaan atau dalam hal ini pengusaha (berdikari).

Lawan kata dari Kurang Kadaek adalah memiliki kemauan, banyak hal yang bisa dilakukan seperti pengembangan budaya pertanian dan pengelolaan tanah. Tanah di Indonesia sangat potensial, yang bisa dimanfaatkan. Tanah bisa kita manfaatkan untuk menanam bebagai jenis tanaman disituasi pandemi ini, minimalnya untuk menunjang kebutuhan sehari-hari seperti cabai yang sekarang ini melonjak tinggi, tomat, kacang-kacangan dan tanaman lainnya. Seharunya pemerintah mendorongnya ke arah sana bukan hanya UMKM yang justeru menambah beban bukan solusi.

Siapapun memiliki kesempatan untuk berubah, dan perubahan itu harus diawali dari diri kita sendiri. Hal sederhana yang dapat kita lakukan melalu merubah pola pikir, pola pikir pekerja menjadi pola pikir pengusaha, ulet, rajin dan semangat belajar. Dalam situasi pandemi ini sangat relavan jika kita memulainya dengan berfikir positif dan melakukan hal positif sehingga sugesti negatif yang kita terima dari luar dapat tercanter dan pada akhirnya memiliki keyakinan untuk memulai perubahan kearah yang lebih baik.