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Home RUANG PATRON OPINI Pilkada antara langsung VS perwakilan, Manakah yang paling dominan?

Pilkada antara langsung VS perwakilan, Manakah yang paling dominan?

Pilkada antara langsung VS perwakilan, Manakah yang paling dominan?

oleh : Fajrul Falah

Semenjak orde baru meletus pada tahun 1998 dimana para aktivis mahasiswa, masyarakat, para praktisi politik dan akademisi. Menuntut ingin adanya perubahan sistem ketatanegaraan kita dimulai dari pemerintahan tingkat paling atas sampai tingkat bawah, karena pada masa rezim orde baru keberlangsungan berdemokrasi dibungkam begitu saja dengan kekutan militernya. Walaupun masa orde baru beberapa kali melaksanakan pemilu pada tahun 1971, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, dan 1997. Banyak sekali kecacatan didalam berdemokrasi terutama dalam hal menentukan pemimpin kepala daerah baik itu tingkat satu maupun tingkat dua yaitu gubernur, bupati, dan walikota.

Maka didalam pemilihan kepala daerah dengan sistem perwakilan melalui DPRD Daerah masing-masing. Dalam menentukannya banyak di intervensi berbagai pihak untuk kepentingan pemerintahan pusat. Sehingga melahirkan pemimpin daerah dari kalangan orang-orang terdekat atau kerabat yang berafiliasi kepada pemerintah rezim orde baru.

Tuntutan reformasi diantaranya tentang otonomi daerah dimana UUD 1945 diamandemen. Pemerintahan daerah diberikan kewenangan yang seluas-luasnya terkecuali urusan pemerintah pusat seperti masalah hubungan keuangan, sumber daya alam, dan sumber daya lainya berdasarkan undang-undang. Maka ini menjadi catatan sejarah bagi perjalanan pemerintah daerah dari sistem sentralisasi berganti menjadi sistem desentralisasi.  Yang mana sistem desentralisasi ini pemerintahan daerah boleh mengurusi dan menjalankan daerahnya untuk menyesuaikan kultur, hukum adat, tradisi budaya dsb.

Masa  transisi, UU No. 22 tahun 1999 pemerintahan daerah masih bergulir dengan pemilukada dengan sistem perwakilan Sebelum tahun 2005, kepala daerah dan wakil kepala daerah dipilih oleh dewan perwakilan daerah (DPRD). Kemudian lahirlah UU No. 32 Tahun 2004 tentang pemerintah daerah, kepala daerah dan wakil kepala daerah dipilih secara langsung oleh rakyat melalui pilkada. Pilkada secara langsung pertama kali diselenggarakan pada bulan juni 2005, dilaksanakan didaerah kutai kartanegara, Kalimantan timur sebagai percontohan untuk pertama kalinya diselenggarakan.

Maka 15 Tahun sudah kita menyelenggarakan pilkada secara langsung  banyak problem yang harus dipecahkan bersama terkait persoalan daerah, banyak anggaran yang digelontorkan oleh Negara baik itu anggaran APBN dan ABPD semata-mata untuk hajat rakyat yang sifatnya 5 tahunan, yang mana untuk menentukan pemimpin daerah. Tahun 2020 saja anggaran pilkada mencapai 20,4 triliun, juga khususnya diprovinsi banten untuk 4 (empat) kabupaten/kota kurang lebih mencapai 235,3 Miliyar yang diambil dari anggaran APBN dan APBD artinya anggaran ini untuk kebutuhan pembiayaan pilkada seperti KPUD juga protokol kesehatan covid 19 agar pelaksanaan ini tertib, damai, aman, dan sehat.

Anggaran yang harus dikeluarkan Negara sangat fantastis demi kebutuhan demokrasi sedangkan rakyat didaerah pelosok  sangat miris sekali dengan keadaan begitu memperihatinkan, ditambah dengan bencana non alam adanya virus covid 19, dan Negara harus menyelamatkan hajat hidup rakyat Indonesia dari terjangkitnya virus. Kalau anggaran dana ini dialihkan untuk kesehatan covid 19, baik itu permasalahan kesejahteran, maupun dampak kebutuhan hidup masyarakat. Pilkada langsung atau perwakilan itu sama saja, sama-sama mengelontorkan dana Negara. Tetapi semuanya ada kekurangan dan kelebihahan, bahkan kita sudah mencoba model sistem keduanya, langsung atau perwakilan dalam konteks konstitusi Negara kita dalam menafsirkan UUD 1945 pasal 18 ayat 4 tentang otonomi daerah masih multi tafsir dalam pelaksanaan pilkada, tidak ada konteks langsung atau perwakilan, yang ada hanyalah sistem politik dan para aktor kekuasaan Negara. Realitas yang terjadi dimasyarakat pedesaan saat ini, masih dikatakan kurang sejahtera dalam berbagai bidang, di provinsi banten saja angka tingkat kemiskinan dan pengganguran menjadi salah satu provinsi tertinggal di indonnesia. Seandainya dana pilkada langsung ini, untuk kebutuhan kesejahteraan masyarakat, baik itu pendidikan, perekonomian, kesehatan, maupun infrastruktur jalan pedesaan. Ini bisa direlokasikan membangun berbagai bidang, misalkan 1 miliyar perdesa saja bisa membangun ruas jalan rusak dengan jarak tempuh 1 km, juga pendidikan, kesehatan, dan perekonomian.

Pilkada langsung yang dipilih oleh rakyat, banyak legitimasi pemilihan, pelaksanan pemilihan, dan pembiayaan pemilihan, sehingga melibatkan berbagai kelompok masyarakat, tidak hanya sampai disitu tapi konflik pun terjadi antara vertikal maupun horizontal, antara elit politik maupun masyarakat dengan masyarakat. Tujuannya hanya ingin merebut kekuasaan kepemimpinan, banyak para pemodal mencalonkan diri menjadi kepala daerah maupun wakil kepala daerah, juga para masyarakat biasa yang mempuni menjadi pemimpin daerah, Akan tetapi tidak cukup modal. Karena tingginya biaya politik yang harus dikeluarkan oleh para setiap calon untuk merebut partisipasi masyarakat, baik itu dana untuk parpol pengusung, alat peraga kampanye, dan biaya transpot kunjungan para calon kesetiap daerah.

Maka hari ini sangat mewajarkan sekali para calon ketika terpilih menjadi kepala daerah alih-alih harus ada timbal balik dari segi pendanaan maupun yang mendanainya, sehingga melahirkan pemimpin oligarki, bahkan pemimpin dinasti daerah yang menjadi raja kecil. Lebih baik pilkada langsung ini dikembalikan kembali kapada sistem perwakilan dengan metode perkembangan politik. Bila dikembalikan kembali pilkada pada sistem perwakilan ada satu hal prinsip yang harus digaris bawahi (walaupun dalam pelaksanaan pilkada tidak langsung nanti ternyata menyenangkan rakyat); Pertama, pilkada sistem perwakilan menyebabkan hak pilih rakyat hilang. Kedua, menyebabkan para anggota DPRD mendapat hak sekaligus, yakni hak pilih dan hak legislasi. Ketiga, minimalisir anggaran biaya pilkada. Keempat, mengurangi konflik vertikal maupun horizontal antara elit politik maupun dengan masyarakat. Dan inilah secara proporsional tentu ada perbandingan dan perbedaan, antara sistem langsung maupun sistem perwakilan, tinggal kita pertimbangkan, karena kedaulatan berada ditangan rakyat dan dilaksanakan menurut undang-undang. Sekian terimakasih?

Bagaimana tanggapan anda kerabat yang budiman ?

Conveyor Of Public Opinion merupakan kelahiran Pandeglang, 5 Juli 1995 memiliki hobby Membaca dan Mahasiswa aktif Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Maulana Hasanuddin Banten prodi Hukum Tata Negara. ia juga aktif di organisasi kemasyarakatan sebagai ketua pemuda pedesaan kabupaten pandeglang

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