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Pembaruan  Paradigma  Perlindungan  Perempuan &  Anak

Oleh Iip Syafrudin

Lagi- lagi mata dan telinga kita dalam sepekan ini disuguhi informasi yang nirnalar. Pasca pengeksploitasian ekonomi terhadap anak di Tangerang Selatan, kemudian dalam 2 hari ini kita dipertontonkan kondisi keji, dimana ada 3 orang anak diduga telah menjadi korban kekerasan seksual oleh ayah kandungnya (bahkan diduga dilakukan bukan hanya oleh ayah kandungnya saja) yang terjadi nun di Kabupaten Luwu Timur, Sulawesi Selatan sana.

Meskipun kasusnya telah terjadi sejak 2019 lalu, tetapi hari- hari ini menjadi viral, karena baru belakangan ada “dewa penolong” bagi si ibu dari anak- anak korban, yang berani speakup, menuliskan kronologi kejadian dengan lengkap, dan akhirnya mendapatkan atensi berbagai pihak.

Terhitung sekitar 3- 4 bulan lalu, ada juga satu kasus yang sangat membuat perasaan kita miris, terjadi di Sekolah Selamat Pagi Indonesia, Batu, Jawa Timur, dimana ada puluhan anak yang diduga telah menjadi korban kejahatan seksual oknum pendiri sekolah tersebut.

Kejadian keji ini bahkan diduga telah berlangsung elama bertahun- tahun, sampai dengan ada yang dapat membantu memberikan solusi bagi para korban.

Terkini dan tidak kalah viral, di Provinsi Banten, ada seorang oknum Presiden Mahasiswa pada salah satu kampus Negeri ternama yang dengan terang dan jelas membuat surat pernyataan mengakui telah melakukan pelecehan seksual kepada junior satu kampusnya.

Suatu perbuatan yang sangat kontradiktif dengan apa yang selama ini digembar-gemborkan oleh oknum Presma tersebut, dalam rangka mendorong percepatan lahirnya Rancangan Undang Undang Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual (RUU PKS).

Dan tidak menutup kemungkinan, esok lusa kita tetap akan mendapatkan khabar berita tentang hal yang masih sama, satu perbuatan yang bukan saja melanggar hak azasi, tetapi bahkan mendegradasi hak- hak seseorang, terutama perempuan dan anak.

Ketimpangan Relasi Kuasa Faktor Utama

Dari ketiga kasus tersebut, meski ketika didalami lebih lanjut ada berbagai faktor lainnya, akan tetapi benang merah utamanya ~selain mindset para pelaku yang sudah kadung berfikir kotor~ adalah faktor Ketimpangan Relasi Kuasa.

Pelaku merasa memiliki otoritas atas korban. Pelaku merasa lebih dominan dan mempunyai kesempatan untuk dapat melakukan dominasi terhadap korban.

Ketimpangan relasi kuasa dapat dicontohkan misal antara orangtua dengan anaknya, dosen dengan mahasiswa, senior dan juniornya, atasan dan bawahannya, atau antara banyak orang dengan satu orang, dan sebagainya.

Bahkan, bisa saja relasi kuasa terjadi antara seseorang dengan orang yang disukai atau dikaguminya, meskipun tak punya hubungan langsung.

Penelitian yang dilalukan oleh Rifka Annisa, salah satu instansi yang konsern pada isu perlindungan perempuan dan anak yang berbasis di Yogyakarta mengatakan bahwa faktor utama terjadinya kejahatan/pelecehan seksual adalah pelaku merasa lebih mudah untuk melakukan tindakan kejahatan dan atau perbuatan cabul tersebut.

Pada ketiga kasus yang penulis tuliskan diatas, relasi kuasa jelas sangat dominan. Bagaimana orang tua/pengasuh melakukan eksploitasi ekonomi terhadap anak-anak usia belia dengan menjadikan mereka sebagai anak- anak silver, tanpa sedikitpun para korban dapat melawan atau menghindar.

Bagaimana para murid di sekolah SPI dalam keadaan hampir bisa dipastikan tidak berdaya akibat bujuk, rayu, ancaman dan penekanan dari oknum pendiri sekolah tersebut.

Bagaimana 3 orang anak kandung diduga mendapatkan perilaku keji, kejahatan seksual oleh ayah kandung yang hukuman di pengadilan nantinya akan ditambah sepertiga oleh majelis hakim.

Kemudian kasus terkini, bagaimana seorang senior, oknum Presiden Mahasiswa diduga melakukan pelecehan seksual kepada juniornya. Semua kasus tersebut dapat dipastikan dilakukan dengan cara bujuk, rayu, penekanan, ancaman, bahkan jika para korban menolak, kekerasan fisik bahkan sampai pembunuhan akan menjadi opsi yang akan dilakukan oleh pelaku.

Perlakuan- perlakuan tersebut adalah ciri khas dari ketimpangan relasi kuasa antara pelaku dan korban. Dapat kita bayangkan seandainya para korban tersebut tidak terdominasi oleh para terduga pelaku. Atau jika pelaku dan korban sama- sama memiliki relasi yang setara atau seminimalnya korban bisa menandingi, kondisi penyudutan dan dan pelanggaran HAM tersebut tak kan pernah terjadi.

Keberpihakan Hukum terhadap Korban Kurang Maksimal

Secara personal dan kelembagaan, saya teramat sangat mengapresiasi sikap korban dan atau keluarga korban untuk mengungkap pengalaman pelecehan seksual dan atau pengalaman pelanggaran HAM lainnya.

Pengungkapan ini merupakan satu hal yang sulit dilakukan oleh korban, membutuhkan keberanian untuk mengingat kembali pengalaman yang traumatis dan juga adanya kemungkinan untuk menghadapi serangan balik dari para pelaku tersebut. Serangan balik yang paling sering adalah justru menyalahkan korban, penyangkalan bahkan menuntut balik korban.

Meski saat ini sudah ada dan tersedia sedemikian banyak instansi layanan dan pengaduan bagi korban, akan tetapi saya meyakini, masih banyak kasus- kasus serupa yang tidak terungkap dan diketahui oleh berbagai layanan tersebut dan juga negara. Hal ini dimaklumi, mengingat keberpihakan kepada para korban tidak lebih baik dari perlakuan hukum kepada para pelaku.

Saya berangan dan sungguh mengharapkan,  sejatinya  penanganan proses hukum kejahatan seksual harus dan wajib berorientasi pada korban, bukan hanya pada aspek keterpenuhan hukum semata. Lihatlah bagaimana kasus di Luwu Timur tersebut, yang proses hukumnya hanya 2 bulan saja, lalu kemudian dikeluarkan SP3, tanpa mendalami lebih lanjut tentang dugaan kekerasan seksualnya. Alih- alih melakukan secondopinion dengan cara pemeriksaan forensik mendalam terhadap para korban, malah sebaliknya, dipandang tak cukup bukti dan unsur yang hanya berdasar dari 1 instansi saja.

Harapan saya selanjutnya adalah pada upaya pemaksimalan rehabilitasi fisik dan psikis korban. Baik dalam Undang- undang Perlindungan Anak, Undang- undang Sistem Peradilan Pidana Anak dan juga KUHP tentang tindakan kekerasan seksual (UU Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual sampai dengan saat ini masih dalam bentuk Rancangan     UU di DPR), sudah tersaji proses dan cara rehabilitasi bahkan sampai dengan proses restitusi.

Akan tetapi pada realisasinya, intervensi ini masih sangat jauh panggang dari api.

Melihat berbagai realitas diatas, maka sangat dimaklumi terjadi, ada sedemikian banyak korban- korban pelanggaran HAM yang merasa lebih baik memendam saja kasus yang dialaminya ketimbang harus dilaporkan kepada aparat hukum atau instansi layanan perlindungan perempuan dan anak. Karena dalam frame pemikiran mereka, jika melaporkan kejadian kekerasan seksual atau pelanggaran HAM lainnya, maka terbayang segenap kompleksitas keadaan yang sungguh akan merepotkan, birokrasi dan kenyataan yang belum tentu memihak kepada pelapor.

Maka, wahai aktivis, organisatoris, aparatur hukum sebagai penanggungjawab keadilan, dan akhirnya kepada Negara serta Pemerintahan Daerah, saya mengajak, kita perbarui paradigma perlindungan perempuan dan anak agar lebih inklusif, keberpihakan terhadap korban, pemberian keyakinan, kenyamanan, pelayanan maksimal serta pemberian restitusi bagi korban haruslah dilakukan setegak- tegaknya. Agar mereka, para korban dapat lebih merasa terbantu, para pelaku mendapatkan hukuman yang maksimal, sehingga menjadi satu informasi kepada masyarakat umumnya dan para pelaku, agar tidak ada lagi terjadi kasus- kasus sejenis dikemudian hari.


Bagaimana Tanggapan anda Kerabat Patron yang Budiman ?

Conveyor Publik Opinion Merupakan Ketua Lembaga Perlindungan Anak (LPA) Provinsi Banten