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Moderasi Beragama Budaya Luhur

Oleh : H. Muhidin A Kodir


Kampanye moderasi beragama Kembali digaungkan pemerintah seiring dengan ditetapkannya tahun 2019 sebagai tahun toleransi beragama. 

Seberapa penting moderasi beragama, tentunya harus dipahami istilah moderasi agama terlebih dahulu,  untuk menyamakan frekwensi pada alur makna yang dirumuskan pemerintah melalui kementrian agama republik Indonesia. 

Bukan makna dan tafsir “moderasi beragama” dari yang lain, karena memaknai suatu istilah bukan dari sumbernya cenderung biasa, apalagi mengambil tafsir dari orang yang tidak sepaham, karena tidak dipungkiri masih banyak orang yang salah memahami makna moderasi beragama.

Kata “moderasi” memiliki korelasi dengan beberapa istilah. Dalam Bahasa Inggris kata “Moderasi” berasal dari kata moderation, yang berarti sikap sedang, sikap tidak berlebihan. 

Dalam buku moderasi beragama yang diterbitkan Balai diklat kementrian agama republik Indonesia Tahun 2019, dijelaskan bahwa moderat adalah sebuah kata sifat, turunan dari kata moderation, yang berarti tidak berlebih lebihan atau berarti sedang. 

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kata ini kemudian diserap menjadi moderasi, yang dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) didefinisikan sebagai pengurangan kekerasan, atau penghindaran keekstreman. 

dan, Ketika kata moderasi disandingkan dengan kata beragama, menjadi moderasi beragama, istilah tersebut berarti merujuk pada sikap mengurangi kekerasan, atau menghindari keekstreman dalam praktik beragama.

Sedangkan dalam bahasa Arab, moderasi dikenal dengan kata wasath atau wasathiyah, yang memiliki padanan makna dengan kata tawassuth (tengah tengah), i’tidal (adil), dan tawazun (berimbang). 

Adapun lawan kata moderasi adalah berlebihan, atau tatharruf dalam bahasa Arab, yang mengandung makna extreme, radical, dan excessive dalam bahasa Inggris.

Kata extreme juga bisa berarti “berbuat keterlaluan, pergi dari ujung ke ujung, berbalik memutar, mengambil tindakan/jalan yang sebaliknya”. Dalam KBBI, kata ekstrem didefinisikan sebagai “paling ujung, paling tinggi, dan paling keras”. 

Dari pengertian di atas dapat difahami bahwa moderasi beragama memberi pelajaran untuk berfikir dan bertindak bijaksana, tidak fanatik atau terobsesi buta oleh satu pandangan keagamaan seseorang atau kelompok saja, tanpa mempertimbangkan pandangan keagamaan orang atau kelompok lainnya. 

Moderasi harus dipahami sebagai komitmen bersama untuk menjaga keseimbangan yang paripurna, di mana setiap warga masyarakat, apa pun suku, etnis, budaya, agama, dan pilihan politiknya harus mau saling mendengarkan satu sama lain, serta saling belajar melatih kemampuan mengelola emosi dan mengatasi perbedaan di antara mereka. 

Moderasi beragama adalah suatu sikap dan ikhtiar untuk mengembangkan dan memperkuat suasana kehidupan sosial masyarakat, yang harmonis, rukun, toleran, dengan bernafaskan pada nilai-nilai religious karena sejatinya setiap agama memiliki ajaran nilai-nilai kemanusian. 

Gambaran diatas menunjukan bahwa moderasi beragama bukanlah hal Baru atau agenda titipan apalagi dianggap isu rekayasa. Melainkan telah hidup dalam perjalanan panjang Nenek moyang Nusantara, yang sudah terbiasa hidup rukun dan dikenal toleran jauh sebelum Indonesia terbentuk. 

juga dikenal sebagai masyarakat heterogen yang guyub dan suka tolong menolong pada sesama yang terpleset dijalan tanpa harus bertanya agama dan etnisnya, hingga kini. 

bukan hanya pada ummat beragama pada ummat yang tidak beragama, pun masyarakat indonesia sudah toleran yang dibingkai dalam bhineka tunggal ika. 

Karenanya diskursus dan kampanye moderasi agama selalu menjadi penting untuk mengurai akar sejarah dan budaya toleransi sebagai penguat tumbuh dan berkembang toleransi beragama pada setiap generasi. 

Narasi Sejarah, Ideologi, dan Budaya:

Sejarah moderasi beragama di Tangerang sesungguhnya telah lama  tumbuh dan berkembang seiring dengan tumbuh dan berkembang daerah ini sebagai pusat perniagaan laut dan sungai sebagai akses masuk pedagang dari berbagai daerah dengan ragam etnis dan agamanya. 

rujukan sejarah dan referensi akademik memiliki bukti kuat, bahwa Tangerang dan Banten masa lalu adalah garis perlintasan jalur perdagangan via sungai dan laut,  yang menjadi wilayah kosmopolit, pusat perdagangan internasional yang melibatkan berbagai suku bangsa Nusantara bahkan Dunia. 

Laporan tertulis serta studi akademik dari Bangsa Eropa, China, dan Arab, membuktikan hal ini. Bahwa di Banten dan sekitarnya termasuk Tangerang adalah wilayah lanskap multicultural, multiagama, begitu kuat, Karena para pengelana, pedagang, pelaut, pelayar, dan penjelajah yang datang tidak hanya singgah, melainkan juga banyak yang mukim, menetap cukup lama. karena itulah, bahasa lokal di Tangerang ada Bejanda (Betawi, Jawa Sunda).

Kemudian Mereka  berbaur, berasimilasi, kawin mawin, memiliki keturunan, dan bahkan membentuk komunitas atau kelompok. 

Misalnya pemukiman Tionghoa yang dikenal dengan pemukiman cina benteng dan terbaru muncul perkampungan tehyan yang kental dengan adat istiadat tionghoa di tengah penduduk dengan ragam agama dan etnis yang saling topang bahkan sering ummat agama lain bersama sama menyambut perayaan Perahu naga dan perayaan budaya Tionghoa lainya dengan riang gembira.

Kerukunan masyarakat Tangerang lainya dapat di lihat pada bukti artefak (peninggalan budaya), yang mencerminkan adanya pembauran antara berbagai kelompok agama.

Semisal berbagai kelenteng yang telah hadir sejak lama ditengah pemukiman Muslim tetap eksis dengan aktivitas nya tanpa ada gangguan dri masyarakat dan jika dicermati lebih jauh, hampir di setiap kecamatan di wilayah Tangerang ada kuburan China itu pun tetap terjaga hingga hari ini.

lebih menarik, akulturasi juga nyata terlihat sampai detik ini, di bidang pergaulan sosial, interaksi antar individu terjadi Penyerapan bahasa Tionghoa yang lazim dipakai masyarakat Tangerang, Sperti penyebutan pada mata uang gohcap. Dji goh.Cepek, ban goh dan penyebutan pada kuliner. Bakcang. Bakpao, Tau Cho.

Begitu pun dengan serapan bahasa Arab lekat dengan sebutan, Ana, ente sudah menjadi bahasa sehari hari termasuk pemberian nama anak pun bagi masyarakat Tangerang belum afdol rasanya jika tidak menggunakan nama Arab.

Sikap toleran tersebut tentu berdasarkan ajaran luhur nenek moyang kita.  jika melacak sumber-sumber edukasi tertulis, terutama pada turats (naskah klasik), manuskrip, materi filologi (naskah kuno), atau berbagai dokumen tertulis maupun lisan, seperti Serat, Wawacan, Kidung, Babad, lebih banyak memperlihatkan ajaran-ajaran yang akomodatif, toleran, serta mengutamakan kerjasama. 

Mercusuar ideologi toleran dan moderat juga bisa ditunjukkan pada karya-karya Ulama klasik di Banten. Jika kita mempelajari karya-karya Syeikh Nawawi, Syeikh Abdul Karim, dan murid-murid beliau setelahnya, relatif jauh dari ekstrimisme dan radikalisme.

Justru memperlihatkan sikap yang sholeh, husnul adab, akhlakul karimah, dan mendorong agar Ummat bermanfaat bagi sesama manusia. 

Akhir kata,  sejatinya kita sebagai generasi penerus yang menghormati warisan sejarah agung ini. Memiliki  tanggung jawab moral untuk memperkuat moderasi beragama sebagai kearifan lokal yang indah.

Bagaimana tanggapan anda kerabat patron yang budiman? 

Conveyor of public opinion, H.Muhidin A Kodir Ketua Pimpinan Cabang Gerakan Pemuda Ansor Kabupaten Tangerang, dan Pengurus FKUB Kabupaten Tangerang.