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Home RUANG PATRON OPINI Mendidik Karakter Anak Usia Dini Adalah Mendidik Karakter Bangsa (Renungan Di Hari Guru)

Mendidik Karakter Anak Usia Dini Adalah Mendidik Karakter Bangsa (Renungan Di Hari Guru)

Mendidik Karakter Anak Usia Dini Adalah Mendidik Karakter Bangsa (Renungan Di Hari Guru)

Oleh : Rosita

Bulan November mermemiliki momen bersejarah dalam dunia pendidikan, 20 November Hari Anak Internasional (World Children’s Day), dan 25 November Hari Guru Nasional. Hari anak sedunia ini diperingati sebagai momen untuk merayakan kesejahteraan anak-anak di seluruh dunia serta hak-hak mereka untuk mendapat stimulasi pendidikan, sandang, pangan papan dan spesialisasi bagi anak bermasalah atau pun yatim piatu. Dan hari guru merupakan bentuk penghargaan dari negara pada pahlawan tanpa tanda jasa yang mencetak anak-anak Indonesia menjadi bibit unggul di masa yang akan datang, terutama menjelang 1 abad hari kemerdekaan Indonesia 2045.

2045 merupakan momen besar bagi bangsa Indonesia, yaitu 1 abad kemerdekaan Indonesia serta demografi anak Indonesia. Demografi anak Indonesia akan menggambarkan masa depan dan karakteristik Bangsa Indonesia. Karena jumlah 25% anak-anak dari total penduduk, menentukan 100% masa depan bangsa. Karakter (Kemendiknas: 2010) merupakan nilai unik, baik yang terpatri dalam diri dan terjewantahkan dalam perilaku. Menurut Thomas Lickona “pembangunan karakter bangsa sama pentingnya dengan pembahasan ekonomi dalam arti luas (pendidikan, kependudukan, gizi dan kesehatan, investasi, serta sains dan teknologi). Francis Fukuyama mengatakan “suatu bangsa akan maju jika mempunyai social capital, yaitu high trust society”, salah satu cirinya masyarakat yang individu – individunya layak dipercaya. High trust society adalah karakter bangsa yang memiliki nilai integritas, kerja sama, tenggang rasa, etos kerja tinggi, amanah (jujur), dan bertanggung jawab menjadi perilaku kehidupan. Dan salah satu faktor  yang menjadi  karakter bangsa dalam antropologi (khususnya masa lampau) merupakan tata nilai budaya dan keyakinan yang tercermin dalam kebudayaan suatu masyarakat dan memancarkan ciri khas eksternal sehingga dapat ditanggapi orang luar sebagai kepribadian  masyarakat tersebut. Dahulu Bangsa Indonesia dikenal memiliki prinsip ideologi kebangsaan yang eksklusif, berkebudayaan tinggi, memiliki tata krama, sopan santun, toleransi, gotong royong, semangat juang, dan nasionalisme yang tinggi. Namun beranjak pada abad 20 dengan banyaknya penetrasi  budaya melalui teknologi dan sebagainya, karakter bangsa yang dahulu tercermin mulai luntur, dan memasuki fase kritis yang perlu diwaspadai, karena akan berdampak pada kehancuran bangsa. Hal ini terlihat dari ; Meningkatnya kekerasan di kalangan remaja seperti buliying, berbicara dengan menggunakan bahasa yang kasar dan buruk, Pengaruh peer-group yang kuat dalam tindakan kekerasan (premanisme), meningkatnya perilaku yang merusak diri, seperti narkoba, seks bebas, dan alkohol, semakin rendahnya rasa hormat kepada orang tua dan guru, ketidakjujuran yang begitu membudaya, konsumtif, daya juang rendah sehingga mudah menyerah, memilih gantung diri dll.

Perilaku yang mulai luntur dari karakter asli Indonesia tempo dulu dengan masa sekarang bisa disebabkan dengan kurangnya penanaman nilai budaya yang menjadi karakter sejak usia dini. Karena orang tua atau pun beberapa lembaga pendidikan serta masyarakat lebih fokus pada kecerdasan intelektual (IQ) daripada kecerdasan emosi, kecerdasan spiritual ataupun daya tahan (adversity). Sehingga seorang anak akan lebih dihargai apabila cerdas angka dan bahasa. Tak jarang anak sejak usia dini lebih fokus diajarkan untuk dapat membaca dan menulis terlebih dahulu, dibandingkan berperilaku dan bersosialisasi yang baik atau menstimulasi kecerdasan sosial emosionalnya. Padahal saat anak usia dini adalah masa untuk memberikan berbagai macam stimulasi positif, karena 0-4 tahun proses penyerapan otak 50 % lebih pesat, dan akan menyusut seiring perjalanan usia anak. Jadi waktu terbaik dalam memulai pembangunan karakter di mulai sejak usia dini.

Menstimulasi karakter anak sejak usia dini dibaratkan seperti mengukir karakter masa depan bangsa. Karena saat usia dini otak anak bagaikan spons yang akan menyerap semaksimal munkin informasi yang dilihat, didengar dan dirasakan dari lingkungannya.

Otak memiliki dua belahan, dan menurut Paul Maclean seorang peneliti otak memiliki tiga bagian dasar yang disebut “Otak triune (Three in One)”, yaitu batang otak (otak reptile), sistem limbik (otak mamalia), dan neokorteks. Inilah modal pertama seorang anak untuk mencapai sebuah peradaban dan kecerdasan yang akan berkembang dengan pesat dan maksimal jika terstimulasi dengan baik.

Menurut Bobby de Porter dan Mike Hernacki dalam bukunya Quantum Learning, otak pertama adalah otak reptil (batang otak). Manusia mempunyai unsur-unsur yang sama dengan reptilian; inilah komponen kecerdasan terendah dari spesies manusia. Bagian otak ini bertanggung jawab atas fungsi-fungsi motor sensor (pengetahuan tentang realitas fisik yang berasal dari panca indera). Perilaku yang ada dalam otak reptil berkaitan dengan insting mempertahankan hidup, dorongan untuk mengembangkan spesies. Sehingga perhatiannya tidak lebih dari makan, minum, mengembangkan reproduksi dan perluasan wilayah. Dan ketika merasa tidak aman maka otak reptil ini spontan bangkit dan bersiaga atau melarikan diri dari bahaya. Inilah yang disebut reaksi “hadapi (fight) atau lari (flight)”. Pada masa-masa perkembangan awal manusia , reaksi ini merupakan keharusan. Namun sayangnya jika otak reptil ini dominan, seseorang tidak dapat berpikir pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi (tidak mencapai topi berpikir/korteks).

Di sekeliling otak reptil (batang otak) terdapat sistem limbik yang sangat kompleks dan luas yang disebut otak mamalia. sistem limbik ini berada di tengah dari otak. Sistem limbik  disebut juga dengan pusat perasaan yang akan membuka korteks atau topi berpikir pada anak sehingga anak akan mudah mendapat stimulasi informasi dengan baik dan dapat belajar memecahkan masalah. Sistem limbik akan dapat berkolaborasi dengan baik dengan topi berpikir apabila anak-anak diberi suasana yang nyaman dan menyenangkan dengan bernyanyi, eksperimen yang menyenangkan bicara dengan ungkapan yang baik. Dari stimulasi otak 3 in one inilah yang akan membuat anak mudah menyerap informasi dapat memecahkan masalah dan tidak bereaksi serang atau lari (fligt or fight), sehingga anak tidak mudah menyerah dengan bunuh diri atau  menyerang seperti tawuran.

Dengan sebab itulah menjelang momen penting Bangsa Indonesia tahun 2045, sepatutnya kita semua sebagai guru mulai mendidik bibit penerus bangsa dengan memberikan stimulasi pendidikan berbasis karakter. Karena karakter anak usia dini saat ini akan menjadi cermin bangsa di masa yang akan datang.

Bagaimana tanggapan anda kerabat yang budiman?

Confeyor of public opinion merupakan Dosen STIT Islamic Village Tangerang Program Pendidikan, Pendidikan Islam Anak Usia Dini